Sam Houston arrived in Texas in 1832 and became embroiled in the politics of independence. He became a Major General in the Texas Army in 1835. In 1836 Houston was appointed Commander-in-Chief at the Convention for Texas Independence. The Texas Declaration of Independence was signed on March 2, 1836 and the Siege of the Alamo ended with the deaths of the defenders followed by the execution at Goliad of James Fannin and about 400 men who had surrendered which had been ordered by General Santa Anna. After a chase across Texas, while Santa Anna’s army rested, Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna who signed the Treaty of Velasco which granted Texas its independence.
Houston was elected President of the Republic of Texas twice. During the second term, he was attempted to make peace with the Native Americans, avoid war with Mexico, and support the annexation of Texas into the United States. On February 26, 1845, Congress passed the joint resolution authorizing annexation. On July 4, 1845, the Texan Congress endorsed the American annexation and began writing the its Constitution. The citizens of Texas approved the new constitution and the annexation ordinance on October 13, 1845. President Polk signed the documents admitting Texas into the United States on December 29, 1845.