The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. The Three-Fifths Compromise is found in Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the United States Constitution read: “Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.”
THE RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868. It outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime; granted citizenship to blacks. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865. Its Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling by the Supreme Court (1857) that held that blacks could not be citizens of the United States. Its Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” (i.e., slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.
Tomorrow, Modern Slavery Rita Bay